1Research Center for Environmental Pollutants, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom,
2School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
High levels of turbidity and suspended solids are the major disadvantages of aerated lagoons. Aerated lagoon effluent filtration was investigated by Horizontal Roughing Filter (HRF). Removal efficiencies were determined by examining total phosphorus (TP) and total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) from HRF influent and effluent, simultaneously. HRF pilot system located on effluent pump station of Qom wastewater treatment plant and was put into operation at the filtration rate of 1 m3/m2.h. The main objective was to evaluate the performance of horizontal roughing filter for nutrient removal from aerated lagoon effluent. The filter was fed with continuously aerated lagoon effluent during a 62 days filtration run period. TKN and TP removal efficiencies were 46.6% and 53.8%, respectively. The average inlet and outlet TKN during filtration were 14.49 ±1.63 and 7.73 ±2.84 mg NH3/L, respectively. Moreover, TP was measured 5.7 ±0.83 and 2.63 ±0.63 mg P/L for filter inlet and outlet, respectively. It was shown that horizontal roughing filter has a significant effect on total Kjeldahl nitrogen (p<0.001) and total phosphorus removal (p<0.005).
Application of the Paired Sample–T test to analyze HRF performance in removing TKN and TP
Improving TKN and TP removal efficiencies by incorporation of bed multilayer and decreasing gravel size from inlet to the outlet zone
Evaluating the performance of HRF for nutrient removal from aerated lagoon effluent
EPA, Wastewater technology fact sheet: aerated, partial mix lagoons, in, Environmental Protection Agency, United States, 2002.
R. Crites, G. Technobanoglous, Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems, McGraw–Hill, New York, 1998.
M. Khazaei, S. Nasseri, M.R. Ganjali, M. Khoobi, R. Nabizadeh, A.H. Mahvi, S. Nazmara, E. Gholibegloo, Response surface modeling of lead (II) removal by graphene oxide–Fe3O4 nanocomposite using central composite design, Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, 14 (2016) 1.
L.G. Rich, Aerated lagoon technology, Clemson University, United States, 2003.
J. Ebeling, S. Tsukuda, J. Hankins, C. Solomon, Performance evaluation of a recirculating sand filter and peat filter in West Virginia, Small Flows Quarterly, 4 (2003) 27–29.
E. Metcalf., Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Rse, McGraw–Hill, New York, 2003.
M. Wegelin, Surface water treatment by roughing filters: a design, construction and operation manual, SANDEC, 1996.
J. Crittenden, M.W. Harza, Water Treatment: Principles and Design, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2005.
S. Rooklidge, L. Ketchum, Calcite–amended horizontal roughing filtration for clay turbidity removal, Aqua, 51 (2002) 333–342.
M. Collins, J. Cole, C. Westersund, D. Paris, Assessing roughing filtration design variables, Water Supply, 12 (1994).
M. Wegelin, M. Boller, R. Schertenleib, Particle removal by horizontal–flow roughing filtration, J. Water SRT– Aqua, 36 (1987).
A. APHA, WEF, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, in, American Public Health Association, American
Water Works Association, and Water Environment Federation, United States, 2005.
D. Smith, R. Otis, M. Flint, Florida passive nitrogen removal study (Final report), in, Florida Department of Health, Tallahassee, Florida, United States, 2008.
O.A.-R. Sanusi, Nitrogen reduction in Luleå kommun wastewater effluent, in, Lulea University of Technology, Sweden, 2007, pp. 57.
R.I. Sedlak, Phosphorus and Nitrogen Removal from Municipal Wastewater: Principles and Practice, CRC Press, 1991.
L. Rich, High Performance Aerated Lagoon Systems, Clemson Univ., SC United States, (1999).
A. Stoddard, J.B. Harcum, J.T. Simpson, J.R. Pagenkopf, R.K. Bastian, Municipal Wastewater Treatment: Evaluating Improvements in National Water Quality, Wiley. com, 2003.
L. Rich, Mathematical model for dual–power level, multicellular (DPMC) aerated lagoon systems, Developments in environmental modelling, 7 (1985) 147–168.
E. Idelovitch, N. Icekson–Tal, O. Avraham, M. Michail, The long–term performance of Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) for effluent reuse, Water Supply, 3 (2003) 239–246.
R. Gersberg, B. Elkins, C. Goldman, Nitrogen removal in artificial wetlands, Water Research, 17 (1983) 1009–1014.
K. Cameron, C. Madramootoo, A. Crolla, C. Kinsley, Pollutant removal from municipal sewage lagoon effluents with a free–surface wetland, Water Research, 37 (2003) 2803–2812.
P. Mantovi, M. Marmiroli, E. Maestri, S. Tagliavini, S. Piccinini, N. Marmiroli, Application of a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland on treatment of dairy parlor wastewater, Bioresource Technology, 88 (2003) 85–94.
A. Mesdaghinia, D. Rabbani, S. Nasseri, F. Vaezi, Effect of coagulants on electrochemical process for phosphorus removal from activated sludge effluent, Iran J Public Health, 32 (2003) 45–51.
G.G. Rott, Alternative to CBOD5–based load allocation studies on low–dilution–ratio streams, Journal of Environmental Engineering, 122 (1996) 669–671.
E.J. Middlebrooks, J. Reynolds, J. Montgomery, C. Middlebrooks, R. Schneiter, Design Manual: Municipal Wastewater Stabilization Ponds, in, Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (USA). Center for Environmental Research Information, 1983.
G.E. El–Taweel, G.H. Ali, Evaluation of roughing and slow sand filters for water treatment, Water, air, and soil pollution, 120 (2000) 21–28.
L. Pesonen, A. Pasila, F. Teye, Filter material prepared by grinding, comprising Calcium Hydroxide, in, WO Patent 2,006,134,215, 2006.
H.N. Wiechers, A.S. Louw, N.C. Thirion, K.E. Brodisch, Upgrading of biological filter sewage purification processes for phosphate and nitrogen removal, Water S. A., 10 (1984) 205–210.
A. Janssen, J. van Agtmaal, W.v. den Broek, A. Geilvoet, H. Menkveld, J.–C. Schrotter, J.v. der Graaf, Prefiltration of wastewater effluent: Effects on foulants and performance during dead end ultrafiltration, Desalination, 250 (2010) 855–860.